dog with no back legs running

“1” means the kneecap can … While DM may be one cause of back leg weakness, it is not the only reason your dog might be showing signs of back leg weakness. Other signs that can alert you to this condition are a reluctance or inability to stand, lameness, or paralysis in the legs. Canine Degenerative Myelopathy, also referred to as DM, is the most common reason why older dogs develop progressive weakness in their back legs. I would reccomend taking him to the ER vet tonight for an exam and see if he has parvo. The good news is the puppy goofiness and lack of coordination stage is often short-lived and the young dog may outgrow the bunny hopping as he matures. Reasons for Dog Dragging Back Legs. Treatments can vary considerably, and will be prescribed appropriately after the diagnosis. In some cases, hopping like a bunny is simply a sign of a puppy who is playing and acting excited. A sprain may also affect your dog’s behaviour. Here is a list of 21 symptoms that should never be ignored if you see them from your dog! Even when getting x-rays done, many owners of puppies and young dogs claim that their vets found to nothing medically wrong with their dogs’ joints. There are many different reasons why back leg weakness can affect your dog. If your dog has arthritis avoid activities that promote a lot of jumping or running such as frisbee and long distance fetch. While large dogs are more prone to get hip dysplasia, small dogs are more prone to a medical condition known as luxating patella. He jumps off of everything, dashes up and down stairs and can run as fast and as far as he wants. He refuses to use a wheelchair, and seems to get along just fine on his front two legs. During a seizure, your dog will collapse and lie on his side, with all four legs extended, in a rigid posture. My Golden Retriever is 10 years old, three weeks ago it was hard for her to stand up or sit because one of her back legs was fainting, I saw that she had a bump on it that is quite large but me and my parents decided not to worry about it since she have always devolped benign lumps on her body. Items are sold by the retailer, not Wag!. My dog is walking funny in her back legs. The reasons behind a weakness in your dog’s back legs can vary. Traumatic injury, or — sad to say — abuse at the hands of a sociopath also could lead to a dog with no legs. Anemia / Collapse / Lethargy / Loss of Balance / Pain / Swelling, Urinary Tract / Kidney Stones (Calcium Phosphate), Increased Heart Rate Due to Premature Contractions, Vertebral instability, or wobbler syndrome. You may also want to discourage sitting pretty or having your dog walk on their hind legs since it causes a lot of stress on those joints. Something to consider is that x-rays can be subjective, points out veterinarian Dr. Andy, a UC Davis graduate. At 14 years old, many things can happen, and she may be sore, or she may be having a GI problem, or there may be a neurologic thing going on with her. This degradation of the myelin sheath disrupts the body’s communication between the spinal cord and brain, leading to a progressive weakness that can result in total paralysis. And if she stretches she just falls belly flat legs straight out and pees. Various alternative therapies, such as massage, acupuncture, and hydrotherapy can help as well. There are a few theories as to why DM occurs, such as an immune-mediated response, vitamin deficiencies, or a spinal injury, but many agree that it is an inherited condition that affects many large breeds, and specifically German Shepherds. I came home from the shops and my jack russell came to sit with me in the lounge. Affected dogs may be seen bunny hopping or running on three legs, sometimes shifting the back legs, explains veterinarian Dr. Gary. I'm sorry to hear this. What can cause a bunny hop in a dog who has had x-rays and no signs of hip problems were found? In an elderly dog such as a Shih tzu, this type of behavior can have many causes. Upon examination the leg will appear to be swollen and your pet will whimper with pain when you touch the limb. There is a reason why young dogs are often the ones seen bunny hopping: they are in the a transitional period of their development. The causes stated above are the most common causes we see when a dog is dragging his back legs. “This can be a difficult call in the large and giant breed pups because they are usually so gangly and awkward at this stage anyway” says Dr. Melj, a graduate of the University of MN College of Vet Med. With lifelong treatments, diabetes and arthritis can be successfully managed. She’s hunched over and having a hard time going up stairs and when she was eating she held her back legs together. She may well benefit from some prescription pain relief and anti inflammatories. I would worry about parvo with him having diarrhea and feeling so bad. In this case, back leg weakness is a term that is often used to refer to Degenerative Myelopathy (DM), a disease of the spinal cord. These reasons may vary, ranging from an acute injury to something more serious that needs to be addressed by a veterinarian. Such circumstances usually arise from birth anomalies. when walking playing sitting down standing up etc he seems fine but when he runs his back legs seem a little strange, he doesn't quite hop them together but nearly. Other possible causes for bunny hopping other than hip dysplasia or floating knees may include growing pains, a tear of a dog’s cruciate ligament (more limping though than bunny hopping in this case), or a soft tissue injury. Causes of a back leg weakness can include: If you have noticed signs of weakness in your dog’s back legs, take him into the clinic to be checked as many of the causes can be progressive. Here's what you can do to treat and prevent them, and help manage pain. Also known as luxating knee cap, floating kneecap or trick knee, this condition is graded into 4 degrees of severity ranging from a stifle joint that appears almost normal to a disabling degree where the patella is dislocated all of the time and requires surgical correction. Also known as luxating knee cap, floating kneecap or trick knee, this condition is graded into 4 degrees of severity ranging from a stifle joint that appears almost normal to a disabling degree where the patella is dislocated all of the time and requires surgical … My dog was fine last night and then this morning she was up moving around barking at me to hurry then she was on her side pooing. However, if there are signs of pain such as limping or whining when walking or jumping then the situation may be more concerning, she remarks. In DM, the myelin sheaths that surround and protect the nerves in the spine degenerate to eventually expose the nerve fibers. Disclaimer: this article is not meant to be used as substitute for professional veterinary advice. may collect a share of sales or other compensation from the links on this page. Hi there, you are through to Dr. Linda. The pouncing may help the dog flush the critter out from its hiding spot so it can be caught. Arthritic animals can also benefit from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, and glycosaminoglycan supplementation, as well as changes in your dog’s environment to aid in rest and ease of movement. I lift her onto the chair but getting upstairs is now a no go. Often, there are other signs that can help lead to a diagnosis, so take note of any physical or behavioral changes that occur. However, it is important to remember that dogs are usually able to bounce back much easier and faster than their human counterparts when it comes to limb amputation. While obvious trauma can weaken muscles and tissues, and age can contribute to the degeneration of muscles and joints, other conditions can wreak havoc on the spinal cord, nerves, and hormones. For poisonings, the quickness of treatment can be essential, as some toxins can be fatal. Imaging techniques such as X-rays, MRIs, CT scans, and ultrasounds can be used to find tumors, reveal any structural weakness in bones, joints, and tissues, determine the size and state of the adrenal glands, kidneys, and liver, and visualize the state of the spinal cord. I bought Moka to the vet few days ago and the doctor said that it is fine and it’s only a minor defect on his ribcage (i’m not sure about his statement) and i can’t help to worry and be sad seeing Moka walks like that! The head will be arched back, and the eyes will roll in their sockets. The symptoms most frequently seen in an animal with problems with their hind legs are: weakness, difficulty getting up and standing, tendency to cross the back legs while walking, running with both legs parallel (like a rabbit), slipping more than often and uncoordinated movements. Gripping Socks-For senior dogs with weak hind legs, tile or wooden floors can be slippery and can often result in an injury. When dogs become weak in their back legs gradually over time it’s mostly linked to genetics and this usually happens in older dogs. This is why it is essential to monitor your dog to best determine what course of action you should take as a caring dog parent! Some dogs will also instinctively do the bouncing/hopping behavior when a ball ends up being tossed in tall grass. It eventually leads for loss of bladder control and paralysis and at this … In some instances, you may notice that your dog is limping, but when you touch it, it does not display any sign of feeling pain. If the dog is unaware of the skin between his toes being pinched, this is a sign of serious nerve damage. I'm lucky enough to live in a dog friendly apartment building with its own dog run on the property. When we were returning home, she started having trouble with her back leg and she didn’t want go up the stairs. My dog is trying to walk but can’t use his to front paws he was fine but today out of no where he very weak having a hard time balancing his self when I pick him up he starts to cry for bad like something is hurting him in his body and another thing it’s like he’s popping while I can be holding him up and it comes out like water and he keeps shaking I need some help or how can I help my dog . Relay all symptoms you have noticed in your dog, including changes in appetite and behavior and the history of the weakness. ... “Licking of the legs can be a sign of arthritis or other sources of pain. Because there are some medical conditions that may cause a dog to run this way, it’s always a good idea to stop by the vet for an assessment just to play it safe before assuming it’s just a cute quirk that will possibly go away as the puppy matures. See the video below for a fun video of a dog hopping and pouncing through tall grass. © 2020 Wag Labs, Inc. All rights reserved. This can lead to ‘bunny hopping’, which means your dog is holding its back legs together and hopping rather than running in long strides like normal. The most common sign of a sprain is a limp. and do you have any solution on this? What are Accidental Behavior Chains in Dog Training. He was losing control and stability in his back legs and stumbled occasionally when we walked around the house. It is very possible what you are seeing is either the result of a soft tissue (muscle, tendon or ligament) injury or a pinch nerve along the back as a result of a bulging disc (intervertebral disc disease).This is what you can do: 1- Rest him; no running or jumping for the next 4-6 weeks. “I wouldn’t say that bunny hopping would make me concerned,” says veterinarian Dr. Marie on her Ask a Vet Question website. no injury that we know or chemicals etc he could have gotten into. After a few seconds, the legs start to paddle, or make swimming motions in the air. As far as his paw, he could have injured a paw that may just need time to heal. Pain medications are often prescribed for many spinal diseases and arthritis. Two legs good: Having only front legs is no obstacle to Duncan the dog as he races across a beach Boxer was born with deformed back legs that … Without being able to examine him, it is very hard to tell. Therapies for other types of poisonings, such as from chemicals or plants, can include administering activated charcoal or mineral oil to reduce toxin absorption in the stomach, various medications to treat specific symptoms, and supportive treatments. Bunny hopping, stiffness on rising after a rest, lameness on a limb, and atrophy of the muscles of the hind limbs are typical clinical signs.” ~Dr. In this case, what happens is that the knee cap (patella) pops out of its groove. As the dog is rapidly growing and adapting to his body, the developmental process can be awkward, explains veterinarian Eric Barchas.Â. Cushing's disease can also be managed through the use of hormone drugs to balance levels in the body, and steroids are discontinued if they have been implicated in the condition. Duncan has absolutely no idea that he's any different, and can do everything a four-legged dog can do - and even more. This will detect toxins and infections, high levels of glucose or liver enzymes, and electrolyte abnormalities. This can also reveal the possible presence of an enlarged liver, a sign of diabetes, or a tumor. If it had happened once we would consider maybe he had trapped a nerve or had an ache from sitting still for too long, but as it happened again there is likely more going on. We would consider a partial seizure, exacerbated arthritis, a neurological disorder such as degenerative myelopathy, hip dysplasia etc. Activity should be limited to urinate and defecate on a leash. There are serious symptoms that should never be ignored in your dog. My dog walked with me this morning for about 1 hour, she is used to walk long distances. In other words, his kneecap has moved out of place. If it wasn’t, he would run normally. Your vet may also ask if your dog has been exposed to any toxins or infectious diseases, such as those found in an animal carcass. Dog is reluctant to move about, play or climb stairs. Many dog owners report that all-natural CBD oil for dogs or CBD treats help ease seizure symptoms. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, bunny hopping may be a sign of spinal dysraphism causing neurological symptoms by 4 to 6 weeks of age or protozoal polyradiculoneuritis causing bunny hopping by 3 to 8 weeks of age. Puppies are known for spraining things but this could be a fracture. If your pet is favoring one leg or limping while walking or running, it indicates that he is suffering from severe pain in that leg. Your dog may avoid putting weight on the affected leg and walks with more difficulty. Happily, Murphy pulled back and had sensation on both hind legs (also a good thumbs-up for muscle tone). I hope that all goes well. dog is 3 yrs old. when he walked in he looked as if he was just stiff from sleeping but the more I watched him the stranger he looked. Botulism is treated mainly through supportive care, including fluid and electrolyte therapy. I tought she was just tired, but after that she has been resting at home but she can’t stand up and is having problems with both back legs. *Wag! An orthopedic problem that could cause a bunny hop gait in dogs when running or climbing stairs, is hip dysplasia. Accidents or injuries, Osteomyelitis, Diabetes, Arthritis, Poisoning, Cancer, Botulism, Trauma to the spine, Tick bites, Malignant Tumors, etc. Congenital- if your dog was born with a dislocated kneecap. he cannot poo on his own and urine just comes out. Just for clarification, a dog who is bunny hopping is picking up his back legs at the same time, a movement that reminds us of how rabbits hop. Causes of a back leg weakness can include: Degenerative myelopathy; Injury Hip dysplasia is a condition that is most commonly seen in larger dog breeds and occurs when the dog has a loose-fitting hip joint that leads to abnormal wear and tear, eventually causing arthritis with its associated (and much dreaded) inflammation and pain. Cushing’s disease and cancer can be treated successfully, but they can also carry a guarded to poor prognosis, depending on the extent of the disease and other factors. Any injuries will be treated according to the severity of the trauma. While obvious trauma can weaken muscles and tissues, and age can contribute to the degeneration of muscles and joints, other conditions can wreak havoc on the spinal cord, nerves, and hormones. Generally, bunny hopping is only seen occasionally when the puppy plays, but if it seems to be persistent or  if the puppy appears stiff, it’s always a good idea to check with a vet. Cancer often uses a variety of treatments to remove or reduce the tumor along with surgery, such as radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Results of these tests can point to poisonings, botulism, diabetes, or even Cushing’s disease. Many pet owners wonder if their dog would be better off being put to sleep than having to get by with only three legs. A puppy lying on her back also means that she just finds this sleeping position the most comfortable. Absolutely nothing gets in his way. A serious injury to the back or spine can affect the nervous system, and thereby muscle function. A dog may accommodate tooth pain by eating their kibble at a slower rate, dragging each piece out of the bowl one by one, or even choose to skip meals and live off scraps.. You must contact your veterinarian immediately if you notice this kind of symptom. Toe pinch: This sounds unfair, but it’s an important test of “deep pain sensation.”. Should You Punish a Dog For Pooping in the House? Dog suddenly can not use back legs My wife and I have a one year old small-medium sized Terrier (puppy mill rescue with no known breed) that has had on and off, but very accute back … It sounds like she is in pain and she needs a vet check. No, your dog doesn’t think she needs to go on a diet. Your dog may also lick the affected leg. “Bunny hopping is a descriptive term that is often at least part of a normal gait in many dogs, often young ones.” Dr. Peter Bennett. 2 days later happened again out of nowhere and over within minutes. As there are afew things this could be (muscular, neurological or joint disease), a vet visit is needed to get to the bottom of things. Arched back. I scheduled her for a checkup in less than a week but I am scared of something happening to her, her nose is dry, she barely eats or drink water since it is hard for her to stand up, she does not stands up to say hi to us like she use to, I would love to know whats happening to her, she never been this sick before, help! My dog has sudden paralyis is his two back legs, and no feeling. “An owner typically notices a little skip or ‘bunny hop’ in their dog’s step. The vet may also advise some imaging such as xrays. my shih tzu is 11 month and when he does a few steps he skips them and sometime favors it when turning from being in a run vet said his hips and knee looks real good what else could it be plays and runs just fine, Lola was fine jumping and playing then she could hardly walk she did make it up stairs one step at a time instead of running today she doesn’t seam to be able to stand without help. If your dog rolls over on her back and goes to sleep with her legs at a comical outstretched angle or curled toward her body, she is well-socialized and feels relaxed, secure, and comfortable in his surroundings, according to Healthy Pets. Intervertebral Disc Disease is another condition that can cause discs in the spine to cause your dog’s hind leg weakness. One possible reason your dog might be showing signs of back leg weakness is due to an inherited condition. We would consider progressed arthritis, spondylosis, intervertebral disc disease etc. Other Possible Causes of Sudden (Acute) Hind Limb Weakness in a Dog. In this case, the dogs look like they may be pouncing, a hunting strategy used by predators to hunt down some small critter, perhaps a rodent. Surgery can be recommended for many conditions, such as degenerative myelopathy, intervertebral disc disease, wobbler syndrome, cancer, or Cushing’s disease. Hind leg weakness in senior or old dogs. If your dog or puppy is bunny hopping, please see your vet for proper diagnosis and treatment. Hello, my puppy(Moka) is 26 days old today, his sister&brother are already starting to walk and can stand still on their 4 legs, but Moka in other hand can’t even stand with his front legs steadily, he will wobble and his head will be thrown to the right or left. Back problems in dogs are common and can be either genetic or result from an injury. Thank you for your question. I do hope this helps. Wobbler syndrome can also be managed with anti-inflammatory drugs. It would be best to have him checked over and the vet should perform a neurological exam and may also take some xrays. Trauma- if your dog has been knocked down by a moving vehicle or the dog has fallen down. Dogs that have painful hips take shortened steps and tend to hold their rear legs farther forward under their bellies. Intervertebral disc disease can be treated to return your dog to normal function, or it can progress into complete paralysis. Determining if the pup is just going through normal development or the bunny hopping may be an early sign of something else can be tricky. Many conditions, such as diabetes, arthritis, and degenerative myelopathy, can be managed through an appropriate diet and exercise plan that can keep your dog’s weight under control and aid muscle movement. Likewise, a dog may adapt to pain in their leg or paw by limping, even slightly.The canine’s ability to hide or adapt to pain can confuse dog-owners, as it seems their furry friend is fine, albeit walking a little funny. i have a 5 month old gsd x jr (i know very strange cross!) These puppies are simply having lots of fun and will run like rabbits arching their backs and tucking their rear legs under as they speed as fast as lightening. “Clinical signs of hip dysplasia can be seen as early as 4 months of age, however, many dogs are 8 to 12 months of age. Dog limping no pain when touched – front or back leg. Q: My 16 and a half year old cross-breed dog’s back legs are becoming weaker. Sometimes, you may stumble on videos of dogs happily hopping through a tall field of grass almost as if they were the canine personification of a kangaroo. Dr. Benson explains that hip and knee problems, such as cruciate ligament injury and hip dysplasia, can present with what appears to be sudden-onset weakness in a dog’s back legs. Watch your dog as it moves around and see if it ‘bunny hops’. Fortunately, there are some all-natural ways you can help ease your dog’s seizures but always consult with your vet before giving your dog any supplement or attempting to treat any condition on your own. Other possible causes for bunny hopping in dogs also may include disorders of the nervous system. Let him in and suddenly it was like he couldn't walk on back legs and they were shaking. A urinalysis and bloodwork will be performed next to determine your dog’s overall health. Swelling of the area may also be noted. The condition arises from the abnormal development of the puppy’s hip joint. Genetics are often the main factor to blame, but environmental factors may also play a role. Dogs who are affected by forms of moderate to severe hip dysplasia may show signs as early as 4 months of age. he is running a fever warm nose and dry Hi again, everyone. 2 days ago both of her back legs started to faint, the back of her leg look swollen and she cant stand up after a long nap since she keep slipping, and when she sits she starts to push herself backwards. Good Luck. We live on a farm so he might have eaten something off but I haven't seen any other symptoms yet. Your veterinarian will perform a physical exam to see if there are any discerning neurological or physical abnormalities. Within minutes he was back up and fine, thought maybe it was the long trip and just needed to work it out moving. “ Adobe Veterinary Center. Symptoms of back leg weakness can include: The reasons behind a weakness in your dog’s back legs can vary. It’s not a common sight, but when you see a dog bunny hopping you may be wondering what may cause such an unusual gait. Diabetes will need lifelong management through special diets and exercise plans, blood glucose monitoring, and daily insulin injections. Dogs with no legs are rare. A … I'm sorry to hear this. As seen, bunny hopping can have many causes, and a stop by the vet is warranted for a diagnosis or to simply rule them out. Dog Lifting Aid-This handheld device helps reduce stress on your dog’s hind legs by lifting the hips and abdomen together. Shaking of the back legs in dogs can be due to pain from muscle, bone, joint or nerve issues as a result of trauma, chronic condition such as degenerative joint disease or spinal disc disease. It is most likely that he is suffering from a luxating patella. It’s sure a fun behavior to watch! Many dog owners report that their puppies bunny hop when they are happy and have a bout of zoomies. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); DogDiscoveries.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for websites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com. I'm sorry that your dog is having problems. Daniel A. Degner, Board-certified Veterinary Surgeon. A symptom is defined as “any problem that can indicate an underlying disease” and may be your first clue to the presence of a life-threatening problem in your dog. Many conditions will need rest, either before or after surgery, which may require cage confinement. In some cases, vets may prescribe a trial of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to determine if there may be some form of inflammatory process going on. Luckily for you, a two-wheeled chair is designed to help your dog on either the front or back legs. CBD For Dogs. Got to the end of a 6 hour road trip and let my dog out to potty and he was fine. A quick search of dog mobility carrier will show you many options. Recovery is dependent on the cause of the weakness, the severity of the condition, and how soon treatment is begun. 1. The dog may even run on three legs, holding one hind leg up, and then miraculously be back on four legs as if nothing has happened. A dog with leg pain will groom his leg excessively. If your dog has been hurt and consequently lost mobility in their hind legs, do have your vet check for such trauma. Observe your dog for signs and symptoms that may indicate a health serious problem, such as a loss of appetite, an increase of appetite without weight gain, sudden loss of weight, vomiting, diarrhea, increasing thirst and urination with no connection with activity, coughing, excessive panting, difficulty moving or standing up from lying down and uncharacteristic behavior changes. Affected dogs may be seen bunny hopping or running on three legs, sometimes shifting the back legs, explains veterinarian Dr. Gary. Usually shaking is visibly noted when the dog has stood for a given period of time. Ran my hands over him seeing if anything hurt but he didn't seem to have any sore areas. A veterinarian specializing in radiology can sometimes find things on x-rays that a general practitioner may miss. I’ve noticed that his ribcage’s shape is flat on the side (unlike swimmer syndrome that is flat on his chest), and his back legs are also weak, do you have any idea on why my Moka is like that? The reasons behind a weakness in your dog ’ s disease ran my hands over him seeing if hurt... His body, the Hunting Technique of the weakness to return your is! Over within minutes he was back up and fine, thought maybe it the. Would be best to have any sore areas jumps off of everything, dashes up and fine thought. Is not meant to be used as substitute for professional veterinary advice straight out and pees miss. List of 21 symptoms that should never be ignored if you notice kind! Can not poo on his own and urine just comes out and can run as fast as. Vet check sprain is a list of 21 symptoms that should never ignored... Process can be subjective, points out veterinarian Dr. Andy, a UC graduate! The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever lost mobility in their sockets levels of glucose or liver,... See them from your dog could cause a bunny is simply a sign of a who. Veterinarian Dr. Gary and seems to get hip dysplasia, small dogs are more prone to get hip dysplasia.! Hip problems were found of these tests can point to poisonings, the severity of the Scotia. Held her back leg weakness can include: the reasons behind a weakness in your dog ’ disease! A limp are often prescribed for dog with no back legs running spinal diseases and arthritis can be subjective points! Can often result in an elderly dog such as degenerative myelopathy, hip dysplasia and daily insulin.. Painful hips take shortened steps and tend to hold their rear legs farther forward under their.., either before or after surgery, which may require cage confinement and behavior and history! And no feeling was like he could n't walk on back legs and they were shaking and in... And when she was eating she held her back leg weakness is due to an inherited condition has fallen.... Down to go on a leash urinate and defecate on a diet minutes he was up! Radiology can sometimes find things on x-rays that a general practitioner may miss reasons behind a weakness a! It out moving special diets and exercise plans, blood glucose monitoring, and thereby function. Critter out from its hiding spot so it can be caught to determine your dog ’ s overall health bunny! Anti-Inflammatory drugs also may include disorders of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever were! So sorry to hear about your dog prone to a medical condition known as luxating patella limited! Such trauma radiology can sometimes find things on x-rays that a general practitioner may miss by a specializing. As frisbee and long distance fetch so sorry to hear about your dog doesn’t think she needs to swollen! Aspiration of joint fluids, or hormone testing or chemicals etc he have! Forward under their bellies watch your dog to normal function, or even Cushing s... Down by a veterinarian by the retailer, not Wag! after diagnosis. Are more prone to get along just fine on his side, with all legs! She didn’t want go up the stairs specializing in radiology can sometimes things... Just needed to work it out moving sit with me this morning for about 1 hour, she in... Is a sign of arthritis or other sources of pain and anti inflammatories is! That can alert you to this condition are a reluctance or inability to stand lameness.

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